Egypt Map Throughout the Ages

Egypt’s map has changed over time as borders have expanded and contracted due to changes in ancient Egyptian life or occupation or colonization by a foreign force. The advancement of the ancient Egyptian civilization can be traced back to the gifted placement, which shaped the entire civilization and history of ancient Egypt and drew the attention of neighboring countries.

Map of Ancient Egypt

3500 BCE Map of Ancient Egypt

Life has existed in Egypt for 5000 years, but many changes occurred on the Nile River banks in 3500 BCE. The ancient Egyptians attempted to control the Nile flood by building advanced irrigation systems, dikes, and channels in order to develop the agricultural state. This resulted in prosperity and the establishment of a hierarchy of officials who achieved success in management, architecture, mathematics, and other fields. Egypt’s unique location enabled it to reach its full potential following its unification in 3000 BCE.

2500 BCE Map of Ancient Egypt

After King Menes’ unification battle, the old kingdom rose to power around the narrow Valley of the Nile in 2500 BCE, and Memphis became the new capital. The population grew rapidly around the Nile banks, which became the site of many ancient cities such as Heliopolis, Abydos, and others. Because of Egypt’s privileged geographical location, the city of Memphis and the great pyramids were built, one of the most famous structures in human history that you can visit during your Egypt tours. After a thousand years, Egypt experienced many changes in 1500 BCE, as the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2050-1650 BC) was characterised by weakness and division, as well as a decline in management and artistic design.

1500 BC Map of Ancient Egypt

Following it was the new Egyptian kingdom (1550-1070 BC), which imposed control over the publicity surrounding the Nile Valley from the east and west. The empire expanded into Palestine and Syria in the north and Nubia in the south during this time period. It was the time of great names like Tutankhamen, Hatshepsut, and Ramses II the Great, as well as the construction of the great temple complexes at Luxor and in the Valley of the Kings.

Map of Ancient Egypt During the Persian Occupation

Ancient Egypt began to decline around 1200 BCE and was subjected to numerous attacks, resulting in the loss of Palestine and Nubia. Egypt was invaded by the Persian Empire in 525 BCE and became one of its provinces for the next two centuries.

Ptolemaic Era Map of Ancient Egypt

Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great in 200 BCE, and after his death in 323 BCE, Egypt passed to his general Ptolemy and his descendants, including the beautiful Cleopatra.

Egypt’s capital was transformed into the new city of Alexandria, which became the center of Hellenistic culture, resulting in a hybrid Greek-Egyptian civilization.

Map of Ancient Egypt During the Greek Period

The Greek period ended in 30 BCE with the suicide of the last native ruler of ancient Egypt, Queen Cleopatra, following the death of her beloved Mark Anthony. Egypt was taken over by the Roman Empire under the distant imperial capital Rome in order to extract as much wealth as possible, such as grain and gold.

Map of Ancient Egypt During the Roman Empire

Under Roman rule in 200 CE, Alexandria became a city of great importance and remained one of the greatest cultural centers of the empire’s Greek-speaking regions. Egypt became the imperial capital of Rome’s main source of grain and a great learning center, providing countless modern scholars due to priceless papyrus documents in the ancient Alexandria library or in the desert where the document was kept safe.

Map of Ancient Egypt During the Coptic Period

In 500 CE, a general trend became very popular as Egypt’s economic atmosphere was taken over by a small group of very wealthy families. This phenomenon caused Egypt to become a thriving center of Christianity, with many monks living in harsh desert conditions in full monasticism. Later, Egypt became a center for Christian groups, but this was in conflict with the official church in Constantinople, which despised the concept of monophysite.

The Arab Conquest of Ancient Egypt

Egypt entered a new era with the Arab conquest in 639 AD, which granted the Egyptians freedom of worship and thus welcomed them as liberators rather than conquerors. The Arabian presence, which was only limited to the newly constructed capital of Fustat, shifted Egyptian society quickly.

Fatimid Rule in Ancient Egypt Map

Egypt under Fatimid rule experienced many changes and was under the control of various governors who served under the caliph’s ruler in Bagdad, Iraq. The Arabization process spread throughout Egypt, and Arabic became the official language of the country. The Fatimid dynasty invested heavily in Egypt’s agriculture in order to increase government tax revenues and to build many great structures in Cairo, such as Amr Ibn Alas Mosque, Alazhar Mosque, and Ahmed Ibn Tulan Mosque, which you can visit on Cairo day tours.

Saladin Ayyubib’s Map of Egypt

The Fatimids were able to establish a vast empire based on trade across the Red Sea, establishing Egypt as a major hub for long-distance maritime trade between east and west. Within the middle of the 12th century, a Turkish general named Saladin, who controlled the country in 1170 AD, built the magnificent Citadel of Cairo and took Jerusalem from the Crusaders in 1187 AD, and his descendants took control after him.

Map of Egypt with Mamluqs

Saladin’s Descendants surrounded themselves with Mamluqs, a force of Turkish slaves who took over the country and even expanded their territory to Syria in 1453 AD. Egypt remained the main center of Arabic civilization under the Mamluks, who were able to defend the empire from the Mongol army in 1260. During this period, many Islamic structures such as mosques and bazaars were built.

Map of Ancient Egypt During the Ottoman Empire

The seat of power was transferred from the Mamluks to the Ottomans in 1648. The Ottoman empire was able to seize power, but they left the Mamluk elite in charge of Egypt’s governance. They were able to contribute significantly to the provincial administration. The Mamluks were able to establish themselves as important members of Egyptian society and government and were effective rulers of Egypt. They defended Egypt’s border while continuing to respect the Ottoman empire’s authority.

Muhammad Ali’s Egypt Map

After the Ottoman Empire’s powerful decline in 1798 AD due to the rise of European military forces, a Turkish general named Muhammad Ali Pasha was sent to take control of the country, but the other plans to create his own kingdom away from the crimpling ottoman rule by establishing hundreds of schools, building a powerful western-army to protect Egypt’s borders, and modernizing the country in the year 1837 CE. After fomenting a rebellion in Greece, he was able to wrest control of Syria from the Ottoman Empire.

Map of Egypt in Transition

Mohammad Ali intended to expand his new empire beyond Egypt’s borders so that he could replace the Ottoman regime with his own. He was unable to realize his dream after being forced to withdraw from his march on Constantinople and give up his claim to Syria in 1841, settling for being Egypt’s hereditary ruler for himself and his successors. After ten years of construction by Egyptian labor and design by French engineers under British control, the Suez Canal opened in 1869.

Egypt Map During the British Occupation

Many British forces entered Egypt in 1914 to secure the nationalist revolt threatening the Suez Canal and to handle Egypt’s finances and save the country from bankruptcy and utter chaos, as requested by the current ruler Ismael.

Map of Egypt Under Native Rule

After WWII, the British government withdraws from Egypt except for the Suez Canal zone in 1947. The country was ruled by King Farouk, and Egypt’s borders were agreed upon. Egypt became a republic in 1952, under the leadership of Gamal Abdel Nasser. Egypt seized control of the Suez Canal, but not without suffering fatal consequences at the hands of British and French forces. Egypt and Syria formed the so-called United Arab Republic in 1958, but it was disbanded in 1961.

Today’s Egypt Map

Egypt’s map and borders are now set and agreed upon by the rest of the world, following the recapture of Sinia from Israel in 1973 under the leadership of great leader Muhammad Anwer El Sadat. Egypt has remained a moderate state with authoritarian rule. Egypt built many resorts, such as Hurghada and Sharm El Sheik (The City of Peace), in the following decades to highlight the natural beauty of the Red Sea Rivera. Egypt is regarded as one of the top tourism countries in the world, so if you are planning a trip to Egypt, check out our Egypt tour packages and Nile river cruises to enjoy your dream vacation.

Egypt Tours Inn